Question 1: The address depletion of IPv4 and other shortcomings of this protocol prompted a new version of IP known as IPv6. Explain the advantages of this new IPv6 when compared to IPv4?

Question 2: Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6 is known as the transition from version 4 to version 6 and requires formal strategies to handle this transition. Explain each of the strategies for this migration process using appropriate examples.

Question 3: Calculate the approximate bit rate and signal level(s) for a 4.2 MHz bandwidth system with a signal to noise ratio of 170.

Question 4: In a peer-to-peer (P2P) network, Internet users that are ready to share their resources become peers and form a network. Describe the differences between centralised and decentralised P2P networks? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both networks.

Question 5: What is the total delay (latency) for a frame of size 5 million bits that is being sent on a link with 12 routers each having a queuing time of 4 µs and a processing time of 2 µs. The length of the link is 2600 km, the speed of light inside the link is 2.2 x 108 m/s, the link has a bandwidth of 6 Mbps. Which component(s) of the total delay is/are dominant? Which one(s) is/are negligible?

Question 6: Briefly explain the working of FTP with a flow diagram. How does it differ from SCP? What are the security considerations in FTP?